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Concessional external debt conveys information about the borrower's receipt of aid from official lenders at concessional terms as defined by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD. Concessional debt is defined as loans with an original grant element of 25 percent or more. The grant element of a loan is the grant equivalent expressed as a percentage of the amount committed. It is used as a measure of the overall cost of borrowing. The grant equivalent of a loan is its commitment (present) value, less the discounted present value of its contractual debt service; conventionally, future service payments are discounted at 10 percent. Loans from major regional development banks--African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, and the Inter-American Development Bank--and from the World Bank are classified as concessional according to each institution's classification and not according to the DAC definition, as was the practice in earlier reports. Long-term debt outstanding and disbursed is the total outstanding long-term debt at year end. Long-term external debt is defined as debt that has an original or extended maturity of more than one year and that is owed to nonresidents and repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.