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Total number of pupils in the specified grade who are enrolled in the same grade as in a previous year, expressed as a percentage of the total enrollment in the specified grade. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils repeating a given grade in a given school year by the number of pupils enrolled in the same grade in the same school year and multiplying by 100. The definition of repeaters should be unambiguously applied to include even pupils repeating more than once in the same grade and those who repeat the same grade while transferring from one school to another. Students who were not studying in the same grade in the previous year should be excluded.