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Average number of Grade 1 pupils per mathematics textbook in public primary schools. The data reported includes textbooks in all languages of instruction which are owned by schools and have been distributed to pupils on loan or kept in schools for use in the classroom. The data reported excludes books in school libraries as well as novels and books for use by teachers (such as curriculum guides, syllabi and teacher guides). Data Limitations: While national-level data may suggest all pupils have access to books in these countries, this may hide sub-national disparities. For example, pupils in some schools may have more than one textbook, while shortages may persist in others. The data also does not provide information about the quality of the textbooks available that may sometimes be old or used. Data available for African countries only. For more information, consult the UNESCO Institute for Statistics' Regional Data Collections page.