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Ratio of female total net attendance rate to male total net attendance rate. It is calculated by dividing the female value for the indicator by the male value for the indicator. A GPI equal to 1 indicates parity between females and males. Total net attendance rate is the total number of students of the official lower secondary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Total net enrolment rate, lower secondary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/