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Health and Welfare: Within this sub-category the Ibrahim Index measures: (i) Incidence of TB – incidence of new cases of Tuberculosis. (ii) Child Mortality – likelihood that a newborn baby will die before the age of five, assuming that he/she is subject to current, age-specific mortality rates. (iii) Immunisation against Measles – proportion of one year olds (children aged 12–23 months) who have received one dose of measles vaccine. (iv) Immunisation against DTP – proportion of one year olds (children aged 12–23 months) who have received three doses of DTP vaccine. (v) Welfare Regime – equality of access to social safety nets that compensate for poverty and other risks. (vi) Social Protection and Labour – clustered indicator (average) of variables from the African Development Bank and the World Bank measuring government policies and regulations to ensure a minimum level of welfare to all people. (vii) Social Exclusion – extent to which significant parts of society are isolated due to poverty and inequality. (viii) Antiretroviral Treatment Provision – people with advanced HIV infection who are receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) according to nationally approved or international standards. (ix) Antiretroviral Treatment Provision for Pregnant Women – HIV positive pregnant women who received antiretroviral treatment (ART) to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission. (x) Access to Piped Water – proportion of the population with access to water piped into their dwelling or just outside it. (xi) Access to Improved Water – proportion of the population with access to a water source protected from outside contamination. (xii) Access to Improved Sanitation – proportion of the population served with a sanitation facility that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact. (xiii) Open Defecation Sanitation – proportion of the population forced to dispose of human faeces in open bodies of water or outdoor open spaces.