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Ratio of female net attendance rate to male net attendance rate. It is calculated by dividing the female value for the indicator by the male value for the indicator. A GPI equal to 1 indicates parity between females and males. Net attendance rate is the total number of students in the theoretical age group for lower secondary education attending that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Net Enrolment Rate" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/