The trade surplus hit $31.73 billion in June, up 42.9 percent from the same month last year, the General Administration of Customs said.
While exports for the month rose 11.3 percent year-on-year to $180.21 billion, imports climbed just 6.3 percent to reach $148.48 billion, according to the government's data.
Compared with May, exports in June declined 0.5 percent and imports were down 8.9 percent.
Total trade, or exports and imports combined, increased by eight percent from January to June to $1.84 trillion, falling short of Beijing's growth target of 10 percent for the full year, according to the official data.
Exports for the first six months of the year climbed 9.2 percent to $954.38 billion, while imports rose 6.7 percent to $885.46 billion.